By Carolyn Merchant
By means of learning the numerous methods varied peoples have replaced, formed, and conserved the flora and fauna over the years, environmental historians supply perception into humanity's detailed dating with nature and, extra importantly, are higher capable of comprehend the origins of our present environmental drawback. starting with the precolonial land-use perform of local american citizens and concluding with our twenty-first century matters over our international ecological main issue, American Environmental heritage addresses contentious matters akin to the upkeep of the desert, the expulsion of local peoples from nationwide parks, and inhabitants development, and considers the formative forces of gender, race, and sophistication. Entries tackle various issues, from the influence of rice cultivation, slavery, and the expansion of the auto suburb to the consequences of the Russian sea otter alternate, Columbia River salmon fisheries, the environmental justice circulation, and globalization. This illustrated reference is an important spouse for college students attracted to the continued transformation of the yankee panorama and the conflicts over its assets and conservation. It makes wealthy use of the instruments and assets (climatic and geological facts, courtroom files, archaeological digs, and the writings of naturalists) that environmental historians depend upon to behavior their examine. the amount additionally contains a compendium of important humans, thoughts, occasions, firms, and laws, and an in depth bibliography of serious motion pictures, books, and websites.
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Extra resources for American Environmental History: An Introduction
Chapter 5 explores two key hazardous waste issues: the highly technical problem of how one deﬁnes and categorizes hazardous waste and the much less knowledge-oriented question of regulating hazardous waste trade. Beyond the EU actors, the story delves into the role of international organizations, particularly the OECD and the UN Environment Programme. The chapter explains how an EU coalition managed to push the Community to reconsider the priorities behind transboundary shipments of waste. However, no amount of technical expertise and international involvement has been able to overcome the member-state differences over the deﬁnitions of waste and hazardous.
This second chapter seeks to address these challenges by constructing a middle-range approach that explores how EU actors achieve speciﬁc environmental policy outputs. In order to do this, the approach focuses on coalitional and bureaucratic/institutional politics that operate at the various stages of the EU policy process. Accordingly, such an approach is interested in ‘meso-level’ concerns – that is, how speciﬁc actors, operating under the constraints of the larger EU political system and the international political arena, formulate individual policies within a particular policy area (Peterson 1995, pp.
In all of these roles entrepreneurs must convince the members of the political arena to accept the solution. The entrepreneur’s persuasive skill is key: the entrepreneurs must argue their case because no incontestable environmental policy solution exists (Majone, 1989, p. 22). Entrepreneurs have to convince decision-makers that the new solutions ﬁt the decision-makers’ interests. Policy crises provide the window of opportunity for entrepreneurs to convince the decisional process of the need for improvization and innovation (Polsby, 1984, pp.
American Environmental History: An Introduction by Carolyn Merchant