By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs offers operators with the correct workflow platforms and engineering strategies for designing, making plans and enforcing water injection platforms that might increase restoration elements. while utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is without doubt one of the cost effective equipment for making sure greatest creation premiums. This booklet offers either theoretical research and functional instances for designing and comparing water injection structures and figuring out key creation variables fascinated with making precise predictions for oil and water generating premiums, water injection premiums, and restoration efficiency.
This e-book basically explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulation theories. those subject matters are then utilized to layout and implementation. program situations of 4 oilfields are integrated to assist enhance ideas whereas illustrating the correct workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The ebook can be utilized as a reference for box technical team of workers, or as technical aid for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear move theories
- Provides unique examinations of points comparable to tension sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear circulation theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complex waterflooding systems
- Includes actual case reviews from 4 oilfields
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Extra resources for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice
Most of these reservoirs are sandstones of mixed or inverted rhythms, which means these reservoirs provide good conditions for waterflooding. Since fractures often have higher permeabilities, the ultralow-permeability reservoirs where microfractures are well developed usually have strong water absorptivity and require relatively low flooding pressure, which remains comparatively stable in the flooding process. Take the Chang-6 reservoir in Ansai, for example. The flooding pressure at the beginning was about 6 MPa, and by the end of 2006 it reached 7 MPa.
3%, respectively, at the end of 2006, continued to have a stable or increasing output with effective waterflood (Figs. 1-21 and 1-22). The output begins to decline at the stage of intermediate water-cut. 9417 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Production duration (years) FIGURE 1-21 The decline curve of old wells brought into production before 1999 in the Xinghe block. Chapter | 1 Features of Ultralow-Permeability Reservoirs in the Ordos Basin 35 water-cut, when the output begins to decline, usually at a high rate.
When it encounters higher pressures in these zones, the resistance preventing water from flowing increases. Then the pressure difference between layers of high and low permeabilities forces the water to flow into the zones of lower permeabilities. With the pressure of the lower-permeability reservoirs thus increased and the difference between layers of high and low permeabilities reduced, the sweep efficiency of the injected water is improved, and so is the efficiency of oilfield development. Our water displacement experiments in low permeability oilfields show that an increase in displacement gradient may produce a higher displacement efficiency, thus increasing or maintaining the reservoir pressure at a high level, increasing the displacing pressure and producing pressure differences.
Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice by Ran Xinquan