By K.N. Ngan, T. Meier, D. Chai
In recent times, the paradigm of video coding has shifted from that of a frame-based method of a content-based process, relatively with the finalization of the ISO multimedia coding ordinary, MPEG-4. MPEG-4 is the rising ordinary for the coding of multimedia content material. It defines a syntax for a suite of content-based functionalities, particularly, content-based interactivity, compression and common entry. in spite of the fact that, it doesn't specify how the video content material is to be generated. To generate the video content material, video needs to be segmented into video gadgets and tracked as they transverse around the video frames. This booklet addresses the tough challenge of video segmentation, and the extraction and monitoring of video item planes as outlined in MPEG-4. It then makes a speciality of the categorical factor of face segmentation and coding as utilized to videoconferencing for you to enhance the standard of videoconferencing photographs specifically within the facial area. Modal-based coding is a content-based coding method used to code man made gadgets that experience develop into an immense a part of video content material. It leads to super low bit premiums simply because simply the parameters had to symbolize the modal are transmitted. Model-based coding is integrated to supply history details for the bogus item coding in MPEG-4. finally, MPEG-4, the 1st coding general for multimedia content material is defined intimately. the subjects coated comprise the coding of audio items, the coding of typical and artificial video items, and blunder resilience. complicated Video Coding is without doubt one of the first books on content-based coding and MPEG-4 coding usual. It serves as a great details resource and reference for either researchers and training engineers.
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Additional resources for Advanced Video Coding: Principles and Techniques: The Content-based Approach (Advances in Image Communication, Volume 7)
To start with, the two most basic operators, erosion and dilation, will be introduced. Let B denote a window or flat structuring element and let Bx,v be the translation of B so that its origin is located at (x, y). Then, the erosion CB(I) of an image I by the structuring element B is defined as eB(I)(x,y) -- min (k,1)cB~,~ I(k, 1). 29) Similarly, the dilation 5B(I) of the image I by the structuring element B is given by 6 B ( I ) ( x , y) -- max (k,L)cB~,~ I(k, l). 30) 24 CHAPTER 1. IMAGE AND VIDEO SEGMENTATION For example, consider a window B consisting of 3 x 3 pixels.
51) This projection is computationally efficient and a good approximation if the distance between the objects and the camera is large compared to the depth of the objects. 51) we obtain ! x --alx+a2y+a3 , y - - a 4 x + aSy + a6 with al - ( 8 1 1 - - 8 1 3 c ) ,a b and a5 - ( s 2 2 - 823c), affine motion model. ( 8 1 2 - 8 1 3 c ) , b a3 -- (tl 4 - 8 1 3 c )1, a4 -- (8 21 - - 8 23c), a -- (t2 + S23c). 4. 9: Projection of pixel (X, Y, Z) onto image plane (x, y) under perspective (central) projection.
The first criterion requires the edge operator to have a low probability both for missing real edges and for false alarms. Good localization means that the detected edges should be as close as possible to the center of the true edge. The third and last criterion makes sure that a single edge does not result in multiple detected edges, particularly in the case of thick edges. 18 CHAPTER 1. IMAGE AND VIDEO SEGMENTATION Edge detection is then formulated as a filter design problem. To this end, a mathematical form of encapsulating the above criteria is derived.
Advanced Video Coding: Principles and Techniques: The Content-based Approach (Advances in Image Communication, Volume 7) by K.N. Ngan, T. Meier, D. Chai