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By A. R. Disney

ISBN-10: 0511650248

ISBN-13: 9780511650246

ISBN-10: 052140908X

ISBN-13: 9780521409087

ISBN-10: 0521738229

ISBN-13: 9780521738224

The dominion of Portugal used to be created as a spinoff of the Christian Reconquest of Hispania. without geographical raison d'?tre and no noticeable roots in its Roman, Germanic, or Islamic pasts, it for lengthy remained a small, suffering realm on Europe's outer fringe. Then, within the early 15th century, this not likely springboard for Western growth all of sudden started to collect an empire of its personal, finally extending greater than midway worldwide. The heritage of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, drawing quite on old scholarship postdating the 1974 Portuguese Revolution, bargains readers a accomplished assessment and reinterpretation of ways all this occurred - the 1st such account to seem in English for greater than a iteration. quantity I matters the heritage of Portugal itself from pre-Roman occasions to the climactic French invasion of 1807, and quantity II strains the historical past of the Portuguese in a foreign country empire.

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44 Nevertheless, particularly in the fifteenth century there were also some significant economic gains. The capture of Ceuta gave Portugal access to gold imported via the Saharan caravans from West Africa, enabling the royal mint to strike gold coins for the first time for over fifty years. This was an important step forward because since the mid-thirteenth century Portugal had experienced great difficulty in acquiring gold. In its earlier years, the kingdom had obtained what supplies it could of the yellow metal mainly from Gharb al-Andalus 41 42 43 44 Lopes D 1937 pp 132, 145, 148, 151, 167; NHEP vol 2 pp 242, 260, 271–2, 281; Russell P E 2000 p 31.

63 On 13 July Sebastia˜o’s expedition reached Tangier where most of the garrison was added to its numbers. It then went on in some confusion to Asilah, and there a council was held to decide how to move to al Arish. After much heated debate Sebastia˜o decided to take the overland route – probably because it was considered too risky for his large armada to approach by sea a place notorious for its dangerous shallows and strong artillery defences. The selected land route involved fording two creeks and then crossing the River Loukkos north of Al-Ksar al-Kabir, before turning back towards the coast.

Lopes D 1939 pp 341–2; SHP vol 2 1980 pp 87–8; DHDP vol 2 p 1016. Farinha A D 2002 pp 38–9. Ricard R 1955 pp 85–105 Sanceau E 1961 p 235. 8 A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire incursions or from the ravages of Iberian Christian corsairs more generally, mostly accepted peace on Portuguese terms. Joa˜o, who became king as Joa˜o II in 1481, was able to induce the rulers of Azemmour and Safi to become Portugal’s tributaries and to agree to the establishment of Portuguese fortresses and feitorias on their territory.

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A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807 (Volume 2) by A. R. Disney

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